Sammy Krupski / WHCP with Mr. Masterson / Period #7 - Quarter 3 / February, 2011

Key Vocabulary/People:

  • Clergy - the body of people who performed religious duties and were the authority of the Christian Church.
  • Sacrament – an important religious ceremony
  • Canon Law - a law of the Church that required specific religious matters from the people.
  • Holy Roman Empire – The empire of the Germans who tried to rule Italy, led by Otto I and then Frederick I.
  • Lay Investiture – the process of bishops and other members of the clergy being appointed.

Key Events:

The Far-Reaching Authority of the Church

  • Pope Gelasius I thought that problems would occur between the Church and the state.
  • God created two swords: one for religion and one for political. In order for the government to remain peaceful, the political and religious leaders had to rule in their own section. In reality, this was not able to happen.

The Structure of the Church

  • The Church was ranked with the clergy. The pope in Rome lead the Church and the bishops advised the priests who were the local contact to the Church for most.

Religion as a Unifying Force

  • Through times of hardship with war and turmoil, the Church provided a stable and sense of security for the people.
  • Medieval Christians could follow sacraments (ex. Baptism) to live eternally in heaven.
  • Local churches unified people. People met there to worship and celebrate holidays.

The Law of the Church

  • The Church was a political and religious act of authority. Everyone was made to follow the canon law, which dealt with marriage and religious matters. A court system was created for people who did not follow the canon law.
  • Excommunication threatened people by being banished from the Church. Popes could rule over kings and threaten them to excommunication, which affect the vassals too.
  • An interdict would prevent any celebrations or sacraments from being carried out in a king’s land. This would prevent the people from going to heaven.

The Church and the Holy Roman Empire

  • 936, Otto I (Otto the Great, Charlemagne’s brother) limited the nobles’ and princes’ strength. He gained alliance with the Church and monasteries and was the most effective ruler of medieval Germany. He invaded Italy and became emperor in 962.

Signs of Future Conflicts

  • Otto’s empire was named the Roman Empire of the German Nation…but then was changed to the Holy Roman Empire. Until 1100 when popes and Italians disagreed with German’s power over Italy, it was the strongest state in Europe.

The Emperor Clashes with the Pope

  • The Church and Pope didn’t want the kings to have so much power and influence over the clergy. Lay investiture was not respected when the king appointed church officials, and in 1075, Pope Gregory VII removed lay investiture.
  • Henry IV who was then the German emperor called the bishops and wanted to remove Gregory from the papacy. Pope Gregory VII then excommunicated him, which made bishops and princes side with the Pope.

Showdown at Canossa

  • Henry traveled to Italian town of Canossa to beg to Gregory for forgiveness. The Pope forgave him, leaving Henry humiliated

Concordat of Worms

  • Gregory and Henry fought until 1122, when they got together and made the compromise called the Concordat of Worms. The Church appointed bishops, and the emperor could veto the appointment.

Disorder in the Empire

  • In 1152, the seven princes decided they needed a stronger, more powerful ruler.
  • German forces liked Frederick I, but because he continued to invade Italy, the pope and Italian merchants created the Lombard League (an alliance).
  • The Lombard League fought the emperor’s army at the Battle of Legnano. The Italians won and the empire fell.
  • German States Remain Separate
  • Throughout time, German kings were not able to connect the empire and Church. War and conflicts broke out, German feudal states didn’t unify and they controlled fewer royal lands.