Sam Krupski / WHCP - Mr. Masterson / Notes Assignment / March, 2011

Church Reform & The Crusades

Key Terms:

  • Simony the selling or buying of a position in a Christian church.
  • Gothic relating to a style of church architecture that developed in medieval Europe, featuring ribbed vaults, stained glass windows, flying buttresses pointed arches, and tall spires.
  • Urban, the II the pope who started the trend of Crusades and fighting for holy reasons.
  • Crusade one of the expeditions in which medieval Christian warriors sought to recover control of the Holy Land from the Muslims.
  • Saladin the Muslim leader who fought with Urban II for the control of Jerusalem.
  • Richard the Lion-Hearted The king who tried to fight the Third Crusade by himself.
  • Reconquista the effort by Christian leaders to drive the Muslims out of Spain, lasting from the 1100s until 1492.
  • Inquisition – a Roman Catholic tribunal for investigating and prosecuting charges of heresy-especially the one active in Spain during the 1400s.

The Age of Faith

  • - The Age of Faith was when the popes reformed the Church, and they brought it back to its basic principles. They were influenced by reformers at the Cluny in France in 910.

Problems in the Church

  • There were three main issues:
  • -some marriages of village priests were against the rulings of the Church.
  • - Bishops practiced simony, where they sold spots in the Church
  • - Reformers did not agree with lay investiture they thought the Church alone should appoint the bishops.

Reform and Church Organization

  • - Pope Leo IX and Pope Gregory VII really started the following of the reforms. And in 1100-1200 a kingdom was made in the Church. The pope was the head, and he had advisers or a court called the papal Curia. They made a canon law, and he also had diplomats who went around locally.
  • - The Church collected tithes (taxes) that was 1/10 of their income. The Church powered the hospitals and the tax money was for social services.

New Religious Orders

  • - 1200s- Friars wandered and acted like monks, except they weren’t separated from the world, in fact they were homeless.
  • -Dominic (Spanish priest) founded Dominicans (friars) that thought study was important, most of them were scholars. Francis of Assisi (Italian) founded the Franciscans, that treated all creatures like their spiritual siblings.
  • - Women joined the friars. 1212 – Clare and Francis of Assisi created Franciscan friars for women…Poor Clares. Germany – Hildegard of Bingen created Benedictine in 1147…they lived in poverty but couldn’t travel.

Cathedrals-Cities of God

  • - Cathedrals and churches were built in the Romanesque style.

A New Style of Church Architecture

  • - More money from wealth in towns led to more exotic architecture. Gothic (from the German Goths) was unlike Romanesque buildings, and it was very tall with tons of light coming in and glass windows. They were very heaven-like.
  • - Gothic cathedrals spread. Notre Dame’s ceiling rose greater than 100 feet and up to 500 churches were built in 1170-1270.

The Crusades

  • -1093 Byzantine emperor Alexius Comnenus asked Robert, Count of Flanders for help against the Muslim Turks. They wanted to take over capital Constantinople, and Pope Urban II called for a Crusade - or a "holy war."

Goals of the Crusades

  • -Muslims had Palestine (holy land) and wants Constantinople. The Pople wanted to keep Constantinople and wanted the Christians to stop attacks, as long as reuniting the Eastern and Western branches.
  • - Also, they kept peace within the Church property…because the knights weren’t focused on little things.
  • - Younger sons fought as well because they needed a position and land.
  • - Also merchants made money with loans and lend their ships and hoped to win trade routes.

The First & Second Crusades

  • - People assured a place in heaven if fought for the Pope.
  • - 1097 3 armies of knights were at Constantinople, but were not very prepared. On July 15, 1099 an army of 12000 took over Jerusalem (took > month)
  • - Crusades had a small strip, and four feudal states each ruled by a European noble.
  • - 1144 – Edessa was conquered by the Turks, the Second Crusade was defeated as they tried to regain state. 1187, Saladin (Muslim leader) took over Jerusalem.

The Third Crusade

  • - Three monarchs: Philip II (Augustus) of France, German emperor Frederick I (Barbarossa) and English king, Richard the Lion-Hearted. But Philip left because arguments with Richard, Barbarossa drowned. Richard and Saladin made truce in 1192 that said Muslim controlled Jerusalem, but unarmed Christian pilgrims could visit holy land.

The Crusading Spirit Dwindles

  • - 1204 Fourth Crusade and 4 other crusades were unsuccessful to regaining Jerusalem. They tried to gain Egypt later, but failed. People lost the religious part, and started to see it didn’t personally benefit them.

The Children’s Crusade

  • - 1212- children tried to conquer Jerusalem. A group in France was led by 12 y.o. Stephen of Cloyes. 30,000 children joined and many died while trying to reach Jerusalem, it was unsuccessful.
  • - Nicholas of Cologne and 20,000 children marched toward Rome and although some died along the way, they met the Pope. He told them to wait until they were older.

A Spanish Crusade

  • - Muslims (Moors) controlled until 1100. Reconquista was when Spanish tried to get rid of Muslims. By 1492 Ferdinand and Isabella (Spanish) had control over Granada and the Muslim places.
  • - They made the Inquisition, which stopped people from converting to Christianity. The people were put to death.

The Effects of the Crusades

  • - Crusades showed effect the Church had on people in the Middle Ages period.
  • - Merchants had good business with West which was beneficial to Christians and Muslims.
  • - The hardships of Crusades made the pope weaker and people did not support it as much.
  • - Muslims did not admire Christians and their judging and intolerance against other religions.