Sam Krupski / World History CP w/ Mr. Masterson / October, 2010

~ Section 5-2: Warring City-States ~

Key People/Vocabulary:

  • Polis - a city-state.
  • Acropolis - a fortified hilltop where meetings on governmental morals were discussed.
  • Monarchy - when a single person ruled the government.
  • Aristocracy - depending on one's wealth, this was a government ruled by a small group of landowning, noble families.
  • Oligarchy - a government ruled by a few powerful people.
  • Tyrant(s) - powerful individuals (usually noble and wealthy) sometimes seized governmental power.
  • Democracy - rule by the people of that specific area.
  • Helots - peasants forced to work and labor on the land they were orginally on.
  • Phalanx - a fearsome formation with a powerful fighting front.
  • Persian Wars - war(s) between Greece and the Persian Empire.

Key Events/Happenings:
Rule and Order in Greek City-States
- Polis' or city states were originated around 750 B.C.
- Most city-states controlled between 50 through 500 miles of territory.
- Home to (usually) 10,000 residents.
- Gathered in the agora (A.K.A.: marketplace) and in the acropolis.

Athens Builds a Limited Democracy
- Though Athens was built by a strong democracy, it was tainted with wealth dominating over less fortunate and power struggles.
- Aristocracy: government run by best citizens.
Oligarchy: government ruled by a few powerful people.
Monarchy: rule by a king or queen.
Democracy: government ruled by the people, usually the majority.
- Athenian education was very limited and only the sons of wealthy families were educated by tutors, etc.

Sparta Builds a Military State
- Sparta is located Peloponnesus, a southern part of Greece.
- Sparta dominated the Messenians.
- Sparta was a very war/army dominated area.
- When a male Spartan was born, they were trained to be ruthless armymen as they got older.
- Daily life in Sparta was very brutal and war-dominated.

The Persian Wars
- During the Dorian Age, the rich dominated. They were the ones that could afford the best weapons, shields, breastplates, and chariots. So, they served the armies.
- Battle of Marathon took place when the Persian king, Darius the Great, defeated the rebels and revolted.
- The Athenians won the Battle of Marathon.
- Pheidippides, a young, quick leader, ran back to Athens to deliver news that the Spartans didn't agree with.
- Xerxes ruled an army and assembled an enormous army to battle the Greeks.
- Upon moving through the mountain pass of Thermopylae, 7,000 Greeks (with 300 Spartans) awaited Xerxe's army defenses.