Sam Krupski / Period #7 - World History CP / Mr. Masterson's Class / Quarter #2

~ Democracy and Greece's Golden Age ~

Key Terms:

  • Direct democracy - a form of government in which citizens rule directly and not through representatives.
  • Classical art - a value of harmony, order, balance, and proportional artwork.
  • Tragedy - a serious drama about common, slightly cliched themes/plots (like love, hate, war, and betrayal).
  • Comedy - a play that contained scenes of slapstick situations, crude humor, and mistaken identities - among other themes.
  • Peloponnesian War - a war between Athens and Sparta, the vengeful city-states.

Key People:

  • Socrates - believed in truth and justices; had a funny appearance (unlike most civilians). He talked and brought up political issues with the average people.
  • Plato - a famous, brought-up by wealthy family philosopher, who had Socrates as a tutor, later founded an academy of education called, ironically, the Academy in 387 B.C.
  • Aristotle - was the son of a notorious physician and a very bright man/philosopher. Like Plato, he founded/opened his own school as well, called Lyceum in 335 B.C.

Key Events/Happenings:

Pericles' Plan for Athens
- Wise and able statesman named Pericles led Athens to much of the Golden Age.
- He strengthened the democracy of Athens greatly.
- He did this by increasing the public officials' salaries.
- This was called a direct democracy (see above)
- The Athenian Empire, after the victorious defeat of the Persians, helped organize the Delian League.
- The league took over leadership and dominated the city-state.
- Pericles used money and wealth to beautify and flourish Athens.

Glorious Art & Architecture

- Pericles' goal was to have great Greek artists and architects create superb art. Basically, he supported the artistic group of Athens greatly.
- The Parantheon, a masterpiece of architectural design and craftsmanship, was not unique in style. Though, the Greeks constructed the 2,300 square-foot building in modern, traditional style to make Greek temples (for 200 years).
- Classical art was a dominant part of this creative era.

Drama and History
- Greeks wrote two kinds of plays, tragedies and comedies (see above for descriptions).
- Some tragedies included: Oresteia (a three-part play).
- Some comedies included: The Birds, Lysistrata, etc.

Athenians & Spartans Go To War

- This blood-shedding war was called the Peloponnesian War.
- Athens had a stronger navy whereas Sparta had a stronger army force.
- Sparta won this war-torn dispute.

Philosophers Search for Truth
- Philosopher literally means: "lovers of wisdom."
- Many famous philosophers of this era include: Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle (see above definitions).
- Logic and politics played a massive role within this historical time period.
- Hundreds of poems (epics, sonnets, etc.) and stories were produced during this time.