Sam Krupski / World History CP with Mr. Masterson / Period #7 / Quarter 2

The Roman Republic

Key Terms and/or Vocabulary:

  • Republic - a form of government in which power rests with citizens who have the power/right to vote for their leaders.
  • Patricians - were wealthy landowners who had the most power, back then.
  • Plebeians - were the common farmers, artisans and merchants who made up a majority of the population.
  • Consuls - were the two Roman officials who commanded army forces and directed governmental values and events.
  • Senate - the aristocratic branch Roman government.
  • Dictator - a leader who has absolute power and command over defensive/army forces, government, etc.
  • Legions - Roman soldiers in organized pairs/military units.
  • Tribune(s) - the right the plebeians had to form, assemble, and elect representatives (called tribunes).

Key People and/or Events:

  • Hannibal - a Carthaginian military general, a mastermind strategist.
  • Punic Wars - wars between Rome and Carthage (a total of three) spanning 264 - 146 B.C.

Key Happenings and/or Points:

The Origins of Rome

-According to legend, the city was founded in 753 B.C. by Romulus and Remus, twin sons of the gos Mars and a Latin princess.
-Rome's geography and structure was built on seven rolling, vast hills.
-It is midway between the Alps and Italy's southern tip/point.
-Is also near the midpoint of the Mediterranean Sea.
-From about 1,000 to 500 B.C., the first settlers of Rome were the Latins, the Greeks and the Etruscans.
-Between 750 and 600 B.C., the Greeks established thriving cities.

The Early Republic

-At around 600 B.C., the Etruscans elected a new leader.
-Also, the last leader that Rome had was the Tarquin the Proud, a brutal tyrant.
-Around this time, two new forms of government values came into play - the patricians and the plebeians (see above).
-The twelve tables were stone-carved tablets that hung in the Forum, which read basic rights and laws.
-Many writers, early on in Roman history, boasted the powerful and ingenious government they had.
-These included, like from the Greeks, a monarchy, aristocracy, and a democracy (an oligarchy for Sparta).
-Senates and dictators both ruled, ran for election, etc. in Roman history (see above for definition).
-The Roman army was very powerful, strategic, defensive, and had many soldiers (called legions) within it.
-Military organization and fighting skills were Roman armies' best qualities.

Rome Spreads Its Power

-For hundreds of years, Rome sought to expand it's territories across the nation and world through trade and conquest.
-Rome conquered Italy in the fourth century B.C. through brute force and power; due to their vast growth in militia.
-And, by 265 B.C., the Romans were masters/leaders of nearly ALL of Italy.
-Rome's location gave it easy access and riches (from farming, trading, thriving, etc.).
-In 264 B.C., Rome and Carthage went to war - these three wars were called the Punic Wars (see above).
-In the end, Rome triumphed, after the brutal and long three-war period between them and Carthage.
-And, in 202 B.C., at Zama near Carthage, the Romans finally brought down Hannibal.
-Such growth and power brought new changes and severe difficulties for Rome.