Sam Krupski / World History / Period #7 / Quarter 2 / December, 2010


Section 6.2 - The Roman Empire


Key Vocabulary and/or Terms:

  • Civil war - a conflict between groups within the same area/country.
  • Triumvirate - a group or party of three rulers.
  • Pax Romana - a period of peace and prosperity in Rome - literally meaning: “Roman peace.”


Key People:

  • Agustus - the was-challenged ruler of Rome initially called Octavian, accepted the name Agustus; which means “exalted one.”
  • Julius Caesar - a famous leader/military director who joined forces with Crassus (a wealthy Roman) and Pompey (a popular general). Caesar was elected consul in 59 B.C. and for the next ten years, these three powerful men dominated.


Key Events and/or Notes:

The Republic Collapses

- Rome’s increasing wealth, popularity, and expanding boundaries brought many problems. -Economic turmoil was one of them - the increasing gap between the rich and the poor. Slaves that were captured were forced to work for the wealthy, house-owning and landowning citizens.


Caesar's Reforms:

- Caeser’s great, ingenious reforms included:

  • Granting many more people in the provinces citizenship of Rome.
  • Creating jobs for the poor
  • Starting colonies for people without land
  • Increasing the pay for the soldiers

A Vast and Powerful Empire:

- Whilst during Octavian's rule the Roman Empire was 3 million square miles, containing 60-80 million people (only about one million being actual Romans).

A Sound Government:

- Octavian was one of the most loved and, essentially, the BEST ruler that Rome had been under rule in quite some time (he was amazing with civil services, governmental pay, etc.).
- Octavian died in 14 A.D., though his superb governmental reasoning skills carried on throughout Rome for awhile.


Agriculture and Trade:

- Agriculture was a HUGE aspect of the Roman Empire (without it, cultural diffusion and even Roman existance would have clearly failed) and 90% of the citizens were farmers and participated in trade of goods.

The Roman World:

- While the Romans valued and took hold of discipline, loyalty, and strength/power. This shows because they preferred one to have strength than beauty/good-looks, power than grace, and usefulness than elegance.

Slaves & Captivity:

- Back then, slaves were (unfortunately) crucially needed AND used for various needs towards the slave-owners.
- When a slave had a master, for instance, their master was in charge of them. If they wanted to kill them they could, if they wanted to set them free they could, they could basically do ANYTHING to them, as they wished.
- Slaves included men, women, and (sadly) children.


Gods & Goddesses:

- The Romans worshipped MANY gods and goddesses (see below).
- The three most notorious gods and goddesses were: Jupiter - Father of the gods. Juno - the Wife of Jupiter and goddesses of the women and Minerva - the Wisdom and artful goddess.


Society & Culture:

- The varying classes in Rome were so far apart, it was almost unreasonable.
- The rich were living life to the fullest and had everything they could want, whereas the poor did not.
- At around 250 A.D., there were a total of 150 holidays celebrated in Rome.