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Thursday, March 10

Wednesday, March 9

  1. page 14-1 Notes edited Sam Krupski / WHCP - Mr. Masterson / Notes Assignment / March, 2011 Church Reform & The Crusa…
    Sam Krupski / WHCP - Mr. Masterson / Notes Assignment / March, 2011
    Church Reform & The Crusades
    Key Terms:
    Simony – the selling or buying of a position in a Christian church.
    Gothic – relating to a style of church architecture that developed in medieval Europe, featuring ribbed vaults, stained glass windows, flying buttresses pointed arches, and tall spires.
    Urban, the II – the pope who started the trend of Crusades and fighting for holy reasons.
    Crusade – one of the expeditions in which medieval Christian warriors sought to recover control of the Holy Land from the Muslims.
    Saladin – the Muslim leader who fought with Urban II for the control of Jerusalem.
    Richard the Lion-Hearted – The king who tried to fight the Third Crusade by himself.
    Reconquista – the effort by Christian leaders to drive the Muslims out of Spain, lasting from the 1100s until 1492.
    Inquisition – a Roman Catholic tribunal for investigating and prosecuting charges of heresy-especially the one active in Spain during the 1400s.
    The Age of Faith
    - The Age of Faith was when the popes reformed the Church, and they brought it back to its basic principles. They were influenced by reformers at the Cluny in France in 910.
    Problems in the Church
    There were three main issues:
    -some marriages of village priests were against the rulings of the Church.
    - Bishops practiced simony, where they sold spots in the Church
    - Reformers did not agree with lay investiture they thought the Church alone should appoint the bishops.
    Reform and Church Organization
    - Pope Leo IX and Pope Gregory VII really started the following of the reforms. And in 1100-1200 a kingdom was made in the Church. The pope was the head, and he had advisers or a court called the papal Curia. They made a canon law, and he also had diplomats who went around locally.
    - The Church collected tithes (taxes) that was 1/10 of their income. The Church powered the hospitals and the tax money was for social services.
    New Religious Orders
    - 1200s- Friars wandered and acted like monks, except they weren’t separated from the world, in fact they were homeless.
    -Dominic (Spanish priest) founded Dominicans (friars) that thought study was important, most of them were scholars. Francis of Assisi (Italian) founded the Franciscans, that treated all creatures like their spiritual siblings.
    - Women joined the friars. 1212 – Clare and Francis of Assisi created Franciscan friars for women…Poor Clares. Germany – Hildegard of Bingen created Benedictine in 1147…they lived in poverty but couldn’t travel.
    Cathedrals-Cities of God
    - Cathedrals and churches were built in the Romanesque style.
    A New Style of Church Architecture
    - More money from wealth in towns led to more exotic architecture. Gothic (from the German Goths) was unlike Romanesque buildings, and it was very tall with tons of light coming in and glass windows. They were very heaven-like.
    - Gothic cathedrals spread. Notre Dame’s ceiling rose greater than 100 feet and up to 500 churches were built in 1170-1270.
    The Crusades
    -1093 Byzantine emperor Alexius Comnenus asked Robert, Count of Flanders for help against the Muslim Turks. They wanted to take over capital Constantinople, and Pope Urban II called for a Crusade - or a "holy war."
    Goals of the Crusades
    -Muslims had Palestine (holy land) and wants Constantinople. The Pople wanted to keep Constantinople and wanted the Christians to stop attacks, as long as reuniting the Eastern and Western branches.
    - Also, they kept peace within the Church property…because the knights weren’t focused on little things.
    - Younger sons fought as well because they needed a position and land.
    - Also merchants made money with loans and lend their ships and hoped to win trade routes.
    The First & Second Crusades
    - People assured a place in heaven if fought for the Pope.
    - 1097 3 armies of knights were at Constantinople, but were not very prepared. On July 15, 1099 an army of 12000 took over Jerusalem (took > month)
    - Crusades had a small strip, and four feudal states each ruled by a European noble.
    - 1144 – Edessa was conquered by the Turks, the Second Crusade was defeated as they tried to regain state. 1187, Saladin (Muslim leader) took over Jerusalem.
    The Third Crusade
    - Three monarchs: Philip II (Augustus) of France, German emperor Frederick I (Barbarossa) and English king, Richard the Lion-Hearted. But Philip left because arguments with Richard, Barbarossa drowned. Richard and Saladin made truce in 1192 that said Muslim controlled Jerusalem, but unarmed Christian pilgrims could visit holy land.
    The Crusading Spirit Dwindles
    - 1204 Fourth Crusade and 4 other crusades were unsuccessful to regaining Jerusalem. They tried to gain Egypt later, but failed. People lost the religious part, and started to see it didn’t personally benefit them.
    The Children’s Crusade
    - 1212- children tried to conquer Jerusalem. A group in France was led by 12 y.o. Stephen of Cloyes. 30,000 children joined and many died while trying to reach Jerusalem, it was unsuccessful.
    - Nicholas of Cologne and 20,000 children marched toward Rome and although some died along the way, they met the Pope. He told them to wait until they were older.
    A Spanish Crusade
    - Muslims (Moors) controlled until 1100. Reconquista was when Spanish tried to get rid of Muslims. By 1492 Ferdinand and Isabella (Spanish) had control over Granada and the Muslim places.
    - They made the Inquisition, which stopped people from converting to Christianity. The people were put to death.
    The Effects of the Crusades
    - Crusades showed effect the Church had on people in the Middle Ages period.
    - Merchants had good business with West which was beneficial to Christians and Muslims.
    - The hardships of Crusades made the pope weaker and people did not support it as much.
    - Muslims did not admire Christians and their judging and intolerance against other religions.

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    3:37 pm
  2. page Notebook edited ... Section 13-3: The Age of Chivalry Section 13-4: The Power of the Church Chapter 14: The For…
    Section 13-3: The Age of Chivalry
    Section 13-4: The Power of the Church
    Chapter 14: The Formation of Western Europe
    Section 14-1: Church Reform and the Crusades
    Section 14-2: Changes in Medieval Society
    Section 14-3: England and France Develop
    Section 14-4: The Hundred Years War and the Plague

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    3:11 pm

Sunday, February 13

  1. page Notebook edited ... Chapter 13: European Middle Ages Section 13-1: Charlemagne Unites Germanic Kingdoms Section…
    Chapter 13: European Middle Ages
    Section 13-1: Charlemagne Unites Germanic Kingdoms
    Section 13-2: Feudalism in Europe
    Section 13-3: The Age of Chivalry
    Section 13-4: The Power of the Church
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    4:24 pm

Sunday, February 6

  1. page 13-4 Notes edited Sammy Krupski / WHCP with Mr. Masterson / Period #7 - Quarter 3 / February, 2011 Key Vocabulary/P…
    Sammy Krupski / WHCP with Mr. Masterson / Period #7 - Quarter 3 / February, 2011
    Key Vocabulary/People:
    Clergy - the body of people who performed religious duties and were the authority of the Christian Church.
    Sacrament – an important religious ceremony
    Canon Law - a law of the Church that required specific religious matters from the people.
    Holy Roman Empire – The empire of the Germans who tried to rule Italy, led by Otto I and then Frederick I.
    Lay Investiture – the process of bishops and other members of the clergy being appointed.
    Key Events:
    The Far-Reaching Authority of the Church
    Pope Gelasius I thought that problems would occur between the Church and the state.
    God created two swords: one for religion and one for political. In order for the government to remain peaceful, the political and religious leaders had to rule in their own section. In reality, this was not able to happen.
    The Structure of the Church
    The Church was ranked with the clergy. The pope in Rome lead the Church and the bishops advised the priests who were the local contact to the Church for most.
    Religion as a Unifying Force
    Through times of hardship with war and turmoil, the Church provided a stable and sense of security for the people.
    Medieval Christians could follow sacraments (ex. Baptism) to live eternally in heaven.
    Local churches unified people. People met there to worship and celebrate holidays.
    The Law of the Church
    The Church was a political and religious act of authority. Everyone was made to follow the canon law, which dealt with marriage and religious matters. A court system was created for people who did not follow the canon law.
    Excommunication threatened people by being banished from the Church. Popes could rule over kings and threaten them to excommunication, which affect the vassals too.
    An interdict would prevent any celebrations or sacraments from being carried out in a king’s land. This would prevent the people from going to heaven.
    The Church and the Holy Roman Empire
    936, Otto I (Otto the Great, Charlemagne’s brother) limited the nobles’ and princes’ strength. He gained alliance with the Church and monasteries and was the most effective ruler of medieval Germany. He invaded Italy and became emperor in 962.
    Signs of Future Conflicts
    Otto’s empire was named the Roman Empire of the German Nation…but then was changed to the Holy Roman Empire. Until 1100 when popes and Italians disagreed with German’s power over Italy, it was the strongest state in Europe.
    The Emperor Clashes with the Pope
    The Church and Pope didn’t want the kings to have so much power and influence over the clergy. Lay investiture was not respected when the king appointed church officials, and in 1075, Pope Gregory VII removed lay investiture.
    Henry IV who was then the German emperor called the bishops and wanted to remove Gregory from the papacy. Pope Gregory VII then excommunicated him, which made bishops and princes side with the Pope.
    Showdown at Canossa
    Henry traveled to Italian town of Canossa to beg to Gregory for forgiveness. The Pope forgave him, leaving Henry humiliated
    Concordat of Worms
    Gregory and Henry fought until 1122, when they got together and made the compromise called the Concordat of Worms. The Church appointed bishops, and the emperor could veto the appointment.
    Disorder in the Empire
    In 1152, the seven princes decided they needed a stronger, more powerful ruler.
    German forces liked Frederick I, but because he continued to invade Italy, the pope and Italian merchants created the Lombard League (an alliance).
    The Lombard League fought the emperor’s army at the Battle of Legnano. The Italians won and the empire fell.
    German States Remain Separate
    Throughout time, German kings were not able to connect the empire and Church. War and conflicts broke out, German feudal states didn’t unify and they controlled fewer royal lands.

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    5:26 pm